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Click on the Videos above to understand TMJ anatomy and function

Adopted from with permission

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) is estimated to affect over five percent of the general population. However, only two percent, mostly women, seek medical treatment. The pathophysiology of TMD may be a result of muscular hyperfunction or parafunction and/or underlying degenerative changes within the joint, though it is important to note that no single causative factor leading to TMD has been unequivocally demonstrated. TMD is divided into two basic categories: nonarticular joint disease and articular joint disease.

TMJ Function Anatomy

The TMJ is a diarthrodial joint with a discontinuous articulation of temporal bone and mandible that permits free movement of the joint in various directions. Functionally, the TMJ is considered a compound joint composed of four articular surfaces: the articular facet of the temporal bone, the mandibular condyle and the superior and inferior surfaces of the articular disc. The articular disc divides the joint into two compartments. The inferior compartment allows ginglymoid or hinge motion and rotation, and the superior compartment allows arthrodial or sliding movements. Surrounding the joint is the TMJ capsule, which is extremely vascular and innervated, and tightly attached to the bones, functioning to resist extreme joint movement. The articular disc is composed of dense, fibrous connective tissue that is not vascular or innervated. The disc is flexible and adapts to the functional demand of the articulating surfaces. The biconcave articular disc functions with rotation and translation during jaw opening.

TMD Disease Catagory


Muscle Disorder

Muscle Spasm / Fibromyalgia

Myofacial pain syndrome

Disc Causes

Inflammation of joint space

Displacement of disc with reduction

Displacement of disc without reduction

Bone Causes

Primary Osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ankylosis of Joint (primary or secondary)

Trauma to the TMJ


   - Benign

   - Malignant (rare)

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TMD Treatment Options

Treatment options for TMD should be multifactorial with multidisciplinary approach. Failure to do so can results in incomplete treatment thus not resolving patients symthoms


Conservative / Non Surgical

  • Muscle Relaxer and special TMJ Cream

  • Physical Therapy

  • Splint Therapy

  • Injection into the joint

  • Botox treatment to facial muscles

  • Arthrocopy

  • Arthrocentesis

  • Disc Replacement with abdominal fat

  • Total Joint Replacement

    • Stock Joint​

    • Custom 3D Joint

Click on the imaged for a detail animation adopted from with permission

TMD Disease staging

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